Cognition[ edit ] Verbal memory scores are frequently used as one measure of higher level cognition. These scores vary in direct proportion to estrogen levels throughout the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause. Furthermore, estrogens when administered shortly after natural or surgical menopause prevents decreases in verbal memory. In contrast, estrogens have little effect on verbal memory if first administered years after menopause. Sudden estrogen withdrawal, fluctuating estrogen, and periods of sustained low estrogen levels correlate with significant mood lowering. When estrogen levels were raised through the increased activity of the enzyme aromatase in male lab mice, OCD rituals were dramatically decreased.
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Skin In women, the breasts overlie the pectoralis major muscles and usually extend from the level of the second rib to the level of the sixth rib in the front of the human rib cage ; thus, the breasts cover much of the chest area and the chest walls. At the front of the chest, the breast tissue can extend from the clavicle collarbone to the middle of the sternum breastbone. At the sides of the chest, the breast tissue can extend into the axilla armpit , and can reach as far to the back as the latissimus dorsi muscle , extending from the lower back to the humerus bone the longest bone of the upper arm. As a mammary gland , the breast is composed of differing layers of tissue , predominantly two types: The suspensory Cooper's ligaments are fibrous-tissue prolongations that radiate from the superficial fascia to the skin envelope. The female adult breast contains 14—18 irregular lactiferous lobes that converge at the nipple. Milk exits the breast through the nipple, which is surrounded by a pigmented area of skin called the areola.
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