These are K-Ar data obtained on glauconite, a potassium-bearing clay mineral that forms in some marine sediment. Woodmorappe fails to mention, however, that these data were obtained as part of a controlled experiment to test, on samples of known age, the applicability of the K-Ar method to glauconite and to illite, another clay mineral. He also neglects to mention that most of the 89 K-Ar ages reported in their study agree very well with the expected ages. Evernden and others 43 found that these clay minerals are extremely susceptible to argon loss when heated even slightly, such as occurs when sedimentary rocks are deeply buried.
Cesium-137: A Deadly Hazard
Radioactive decay - Wikipedia
The effects of radiation on genes, including the effect of cancer risk, were recognized much later. In , Hermann Joseph Muller published research showing genetic effects and, in , was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his findings. The committee met in , and After World War II , the increased range and quantity of radioactive substances being handled as a result of military and civil nuclear programmes led to large groups of occupational workers and the public being potentially exposed to harmful levels of ionising radiation. Units of radioactivity[ edit ] Graphic showing relationships between radioactivity and detected ionizing radiation The International System of Units SI unit of radioactive activity is the becquerel Bq , named in honor of the scientist Henri Becquerel. One Bq is defined as one transformation or decay or disintegration per second. An older unit of radioactivity is the curie , Ci, which was originally defined as "the quantity or mass of radium emanation in equilibrium with one gram of radium element ".
How Old is the Earth
In building a carbon atom from 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons: When separate nucleons protons and neutrons are brought together to form a nucleus, a tiny percentage of their mass is instantly converted to a large amount of energy. That energy usually measured in units of millions of electron volts, or MeV is called binding energy, because an extremely strong force inside the nucleus tightly binds the nucleons together—snaps them powerfully together—producing a burst of heat.
The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years. We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods. We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous. This gives us the impression that all but a small percentage of the dates computed by radiometric methods agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found, and that all of these various methods almost always give ages that agree with each other to within a few percentage points.