A is the crag formed from the volcanic plug, B is the tail of softer rock, and C shows the direction of ice movement. In the case of Edinburgh, the castle stands on the crag A with the Royal Mile extending along the tail B The castle stands upon the plug of an extinct volcano , which is estimated to have risen about million years ago during the lower Carboniferous period. The Castle Rock is the remains of a volcanic pipe , which cut through the surrounding sedimentary rock before cooling to form very hard dolerite , a type of basalt. Subsequent glacial erosion was resisted by the dolerite, which protected the softer rock to the east, leaving a crag and tail formation. The defensive advantage of such a site is self-evident, but the geology of the rock also presents difficulties, since basalt is extremely impermeable.
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Edinburgh Castle - Wikipedia
Origins The particular siting of Knaresborough may well be due to the easily defended location — the castle remains stand on a rocky outcrop feet above the river. Ancient Britons gave the Nidd its name over years ago, although very little evidence of iron age or subsequent Roman occupation remains. The origin of the name of Knaresborough is not altogether clear, although one of two sources seems most probable. Thus it is the time of William the Conqueror and the Norman invasion which sees the beginnings of the town of Knaresborough when Serlo de Burgh was granted the Manor of Knaresborough as a reward for his part in the invasion. In Knaresborough was granted to Hugh de Morevill, possibly as compensation for lands given to the King of Scotland. Morevill forfeited the lands in , according to Early Yorkshire Charters:
Patrick banished Satan from a cave, resulting in the Rock's landing in Cashel. Patrick in the 5th century. The Rock of Cashel was the traditional seat of the kings of Munster for several hundred years prior to the Norman invasion. The picturesque complex has a character of its own and is one of the most remarkable collections of Celtic art and medieval architecture to be found anywhere in Europe. Buildings on the Rock[ edit ] The Round Tower The oldest and tallest of the buildings is the well preserved round tower 28 metres, or 90 feet , dating from c.