Antiquity and the Middle Ages Until the Renaissance, Greek scholarship in the East and Latin scholarship in the West tended to follow different courses, and it is therefore convenient to treat them separately during this period. Greek scholarship Beginnings Greek epic poetry was recited in early times by professional performers known as rhapsodists, or rhapsodes, who sometimes offered interpretations of the works as well. The Sophists of the 5th century bc—paid writers, lecturers, and teachers such as Protagoras, Prodicus, Gorgias, and Hippias—gave ethical instruction in the form of the exposition of poetry, particularly that of Homer, which from this time formed the staple of Greek education. Some of them were interested in etymology, phonetics, the exact meanings of words, correct diction , and the classification of the parts of speech. Hippias laid the foundations of ancient chronography by making a list of victors in the Olympic Games , and Alcidamas c.
Renaissance Man and The Modern Male
Renaissance - HISTORY
Introduction Considered to be decorative art , jewellery is one of the oldest categories of precious metalwork. There are many different types of jewellery, including: Such decorative adornments were first made in prehistoric times - as confirmed by cave paintings showing figures wearing necklaces and bracelets - and have since become a regular feature of most cultures throughout the ages. An important type of Egyptian art as well as the more nomadic Celtic culture , jewellery was a feature of Byzantine art in Medieval Kiev, African art throughout the Dark Continent, Oceanic art across the Pacific and both Aztec and Inca culture in the Americas. Indeed, jewellery - like body painting and face painting - has been a fundamental element of tribal art for millennia.
German Hellenism[ edit ] The German term griechische Liebe "Greek love" appears in German literature between and , along with socratische Liebe "Socratic love" and platonische Liebe " Platonic love " in reference to male-male attractions. Kyllenion , a novel about an explicitly male-male love affair in a Greek setting by Augustus, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. The Regency in England was an era characterized by hostility and a "frenzy of The philosopher Jeremy Bentham , for instance, appealed to social models of classical antiquity, such as the homoerotic bonds of the Theban Band and pederasty, to demonstrate how these relationships did not inherently erode heterosexual marriage or the family structure.
Roman Green Man c. Roman architecture sometimes features ornate leaf masks, which are usually taken as showing the close interdependence between man and nature, and as describing the deities of Pan, Bacchus, Dionysus or Silvanus, and the mystery religions that grew up around them. Indeed, Dionysus is often considered one of the most likely precursors to the Green Man of the Middle Ages, especially given his usual portrayal as leaf-crowned lord of the wilderness, nature and agriculture - it was only later that he became associated with wine, ecstasy and sexual abandon - and his parallel role in the guise of Okeanus as a god of the underworld, of death and rebirth. However, there are similar figures represented in ancient cultures which had little or no Roman influence. There are many examples of leaf masks from ancient Constantinople such as those now kept in the Archaeological Museum in Istanbul , although this appears not to have been a tradition carried on within the later Eastern church.